Chapter 8 Human habitat

Chapter 8 – Human Habitat

201-202. For more about the Essex research team’s work to understand the effects of exercise in nature see:

202. For an overview of the relationship between exercise outdoors and impacts on physical and mental health, see: Thompson Coon J, et al., (2011). Does participating in physical activity in the outdoor environment have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than participating in physical activity indoors? A systematic review Environment Science and Technology 45 (5); pp.1761-1772. You can find that source on-line at: 

202-203. The UK study I cite that looked at the potential to improve self-esteem and mood through time outside is Barton J. and Pretty J. (2010) What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for Improving Mental Health? A Multi-Study Analysis. Environmental Science and Technology 44 (10) pp.3947–3955. See that on-line here: 

203. The Natural England study I mention to investigate feelings of restoration is White, M. P. et al., Feelings of restoration from recent nature visits, Journal of Environmental Psychology (2013) 35 pp. 40–51.

203. For my source regarding the Japanese research comparing the relative effects on different psychological measures arising from time in forests and cities see Park, B.J. et al., (2010). The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan Environ Health Prev Med. 15(1): 18–26. Published online at: 

204. On the connection with species richness and positive health benefits see Luck, G.W. et al., (2011). Relations between Urban Bird and Plant Communities and Human Well-Being and Connection to Nature. Conservation Biology. Volume 25, Issue 4, pages 816–826. See on-line: 
Also see Poudyal N.C., et al., (2009). Valuing Diversity and spatial pattern of open space plots in urban neighborhoods. Forest Policy and Economics 11:194–201 
These researchers analysis suggested a moderate but significant positive association between life expectancy and an indicator of exposure to biodiversity in the USA.

204. An overview for the wider health benefits from time in natural areas can be found in Pretty J, Peacock J, Sellens M and Griffin M. (2005). The Mental and Physical Health Outcomes of Green Exercise. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 15(5), 319-337

206. For more on children spending less time playing outside see 
Louv, R. (2005) Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, North Carolina and Bird, W. (2007) 

Natural Thinking. Investigating the links between the Natural Environment, Biodiversity and Mental Health. A report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Bedfordshire. Online here:

Also see HPA, (Health Protection Agency). Health effects of climate change in the UK 2008; Health Protection Agency, UK, 124pp. 2008.

206-207. For improved mental wellbeing in urban areas arising from more greenspace see White, M.P., et al., (2013). Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? a fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psychological Science, 24(6), 920-928. You can find the abstract for that paper here: 
as well as citations for many similarly themed papers by White and his colleagues.

207. For data on the estimated future costs arising from lack of exercise see Be active, be healthy, Department of Health, HM Government, London, 72pp, 2009. 
This can be downloaded here.

207. On the future costs arising from juvenile obesity see: Government Office of Science, 2007. Tackling Obesity – Future Choices. HMSO. 76pp. 

207. On the estimated costs of mental health to the NHS and society see 
See pages 39-41 for the details on the economic calculations.

207. For a source on the projected increase in the future incidence of depression worldwide see Mathers, C.D. and Loncar, D., (2006). Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 3 (11), e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442. See that online here:

208-209. Sources for my figures on the value of angling to the economy come from:
Environment Agency (2006) Fishing for the future. Environment Agency, Bristol.

Aprahamian, M.W., et al., (2010) Examining changes in participation in recreational fisheries in England and Wales. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 17, pp.93–105. See on-line here: 

Peirson, G., et al., (2001) Economic evaluation of inland fisheries in England and Wales. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 8,pp.415–424. See on-line here: 

Butler, J.R.A., et al., (2009) Evaluating an ecosystem service provided by Atlantic salmon, sea trout and other fish species in the River Spey, Scotland: The economic impact of recreational rod fisheries. Fisheries Research, 96, pp.259–266. Find on-line at: 

209. On the value of Atlantic Salmon angling to the Borders economy in Scotland see UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, pg. 316. This can be found online here:

211-213. For more about Rutland Water and its Ospreys see: 

214-215. I cite the views of Dr Rob Lambert. You can see more of his work on wildlife and tourism in: 
Robert A. Lambert, ‘Strangers in a Familiar Land: the return of the native ‘aliens’ and the (re)wilding of Britain’s skies, 1850-2010’, in Ian D. Rotherham & Robert A. Lambert (eds.) Invasive and Introduced Plants and Animals: human perceptions, attitudes and approaches to management (Earthscan, London, 2011), Chapter 11, pp.169-183. 

Robert A. Lambert, ‘‘Therapy of the Green Leaf’: public responses to the provision of forest and woodland recreation in twentieth century Britain’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 16, No.4, 2008, pp 408-427. 

Robert A. Lambert, ‘The Grey Seal in Britain: a twentieth century history of a nature conservation success’, Environment and History, Volume 8, No.4, 2002, pp 449-474.

Robert A. Lambert, Contested Mountains: Nature, Development and Environment in the Cairngorms Region of Scotland, 1880-1980 (White Horse Press, Cambridge, 2001). 

Robert A. Lambert, ‘In Search of Wilderness, Nature and Sport: the visitor to Rothiemurchus, 1780-2000’, in T.C. Smout & Robert A. Lambert (eds) Rothiemurchus: Nature and People on a Highland Estate, 1500-2000 (Scottish Cultural Press, Dalkeith, 1999), Chapter 5, pp 32-59. 

214. For an estimate as to the value of White-tailed Eagles in Scotland see: 
Also see RSPB, (2006) Watched Like Never Before: the local economic benefits of spectacular bird species. Sandy, Bedfordshire:

214. On the value of whales and dolphins for tourism in Scotland see Parsons, E.C.M. et al (2003) ‘The value of conserving whales: the impacts of cetacean-related tourism on the economy of rural West Scotland’, Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, Volume 13, 397-415. Find on-line here: 

214. Wildlife tourism generates more than one billion pounds in revenue. See 

215. Rural tourism is worth about £14 billion per year 

216. For more on the Ecominds programme see:
Also have a look at Mind (2013) Feel better outside, feel better inside: Ecotherapy for mental wellbeing, resilience and recovery. London: Mind.

217. Research into impacts of Ecominds: Vardakoulias, O. (2013) The Economic Benefits of Ecominds. London: nef consulting.

218. For source on 4.6 million people seeking assistance for mental health difficulties see note 2 on page 23 of previous reference for the calculations that lead to that number.

218-219. Alder Hey Hospital.

220-223. Green Estate and the work of the Sheffield Wildlife Trust 

224. On the death toll arising from the extreme heat wave of 2003 see 

224-225. For background on the Portbury housing development these sources are helpful: 

227-228. For the numbers arrived at by William Bird see Bird, W. (2004) Natural Fit: Can Green Space and Biodiversity Increase Levels of Physical Activity? A report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Bedfordshire. This can be found on-line at: