Chapter 3 Have our fish had their chips?

Chapter 3 – Have our fish had their chips?

Readers interested in the background to the impacts arising from marine fishing will find excellent material in Roberts, C., (2007). The Unnatural History of the Sea: The Past and Future of Humanity and Fishing. Gaia Books.

64. On the relative supply of fish coming from wild sources compared with farmed fish see this World Bank source for some of the basics: 

65. Page 65 has some details about the natural history of wild cod, including the long distance movements that some fish make. This material comes from C.T. Macer and EASEY, M.W. (1988). The North Sea cod and the English Fishery. Laboratory Leaflet No 61. DEFRA. It can be reached on-line here:

66. On page 66 I mention a piscatorial atlas of the North Sea published in 1883. If you go to this link you can find out more about this classic work by Ole Theodor Olsen.

66. I also mention there the population of Bluefin Tuna that once lived in the North Sea. For more on the collapse of that species in our waters this paper provides an excellent starting point. Census of Marine Life. Collapse Of Bluefin Tuna Population Off Northern Europe Described. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 August 2007.

66. I also mention the effects on marine environments of nutrient pollution coming from land. For more on this see for example Gowen, R. J. & Stewart, B. M., (2005). The Irish Sea: nutrient status and phytoplankton. Journal of Sea Research 54, pp.36-50. This paper finds major changes in vital plankton populations caused by nutrients. You can find it on-line here:

67. I mention the incidence of human disease caused by seafood. You can find the source for the figures I cite in Adak, G. K. et al, (2005). Disease risks from foods, England and Wales, 1996-2000. Emerging infectious diseases 11:3 pp.365-372. 

67. For employment statistics for the fishing industry see Cracknell, R., (2009). Sea Fisheries Statistics. House of Commons Library Standard Note: SN/SG/2788 16pp.

67. In relation to the effects of technology development then see Engelhard, G. H., (2005). Catalogue of Defra historical catch and effort charts: six decades of detailed spatial statistics for British fisheries. Sci. Serv. Tech. Rep., Cefas Lowestoft, No. 128: 42pp. You can find that source on line here:

67. On the amount of seafood we consume in the UK each year figures are from Seafish (2009) Facts about seafood from

67-68. On the effects of 200 mile territorial limits being adopted by other countries then C.T. Macer and EASEY, M.W. (1988). The North Sea cod and the English Fishery. Laboratory Leaflet No 61. DEFRA., says a little about that. It can be reached on-line here:

69. On the big question of the policy mix needed to keep fishing ports in business  then a good place to start is with ISU (2012). Toward Global Sustainable Fisheries: the opportunity for transition. International Sustainablity Unit, London. You can find that here:

69-70. For a little more on the Brixham trawlers that have adapted their gear to reduce damage to the seabed then see ISU (2012). Fisheries in Transition 50 Interviews with the Fishing Sector. International Sustainability Unit, London p61. See that report here:

70. There is a reference to ‘England’s Coral Garden’. You can find out more about that, the Lyme Bay reefs and the issues affecting them from Lyme Bay Reefs: A 16 year search for sustainability (2007). Devon Wildlife Trust. 

71. On the multiple benefits of marine protected areas see Rees, S. E., et al. (2012). Incorporating indirect ecosystem services into marine protected area planning and management, International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management8:3, pp. 273-285. 

72-73. For sources relating to the relative economic value of different activities taking place in and around the Lyme Bay protected area these papers provide data and analysis. 
Rees, S. E., et al. (2010). The value of marine biodiversity to the leisure and recreation industry and its application to marine spatial planning. Marine Policy 34:5 pp. 868–875.
Rees, S. E., et al., (2013). A thematic cost-benefit analysis of a marine protected area, Journal of Environmental Management114 pp.476-485.
Stevens,  T., et al., (2007). Surveys for marine spatial planning in Lyme Bay. The Marine Institute, University of Plymouth.

74-76. On North Sea cod technical data on the recent history of that species in this area (and other nearby populations) can be found in this ICES report

76. For background on the multi-factor situation behind cod recovery in the Eastern Baltic see Margit Eeron, Friedrich W. Ko ̈ster and Morten Vinther, (2012). Why is the Eastern Baltic cod recovering? Marine Policy 36 235–240.

77. For a little more background on Project Inshore see this

78. For data relating to the proportion of fish caught in UK waters that are taken by British registered vessels, I took my number from the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, p471. Scroll down and click onto Chapter 12.

78. On progress recently made at EU level toward more sustainable fishing practices see for example