Chapter 16. How To Destroy A Rainforest
Ashes to ashes
My eye-witness accounts are derived from six separate visits to Sumatra and Java that took place during 2013 to 2017. The fire I describe was seen in Jambi Province in August 2015.
The estimate that daily emissions from forest fires in Indonesia in 2015 were greater than the daily emissions of the entire United States came from data presented by the Global Fire Emissions Database http://www.globalfiredata.org/ and interpreted by the World Resources Institute http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/10/indonesia%E2%80%99s-fire-outbreaks-producing-more-daily-emissions-entire-us-economy.
Research into how smoke can reduce rainfall can be found in ‘Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon’ by Andreae et al. 2004 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14988556.
The World Bank and IMF destruction of forests
Regarding the causes of the 1997 Asian financial crisis see for example Robert Wade’s 1998 paper ‘The Asian debt-and-development crisis of 1997-?: Causes and consequences’ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X98000709.
How panic led to the Asian financial crisis is documented by Sachs and Radelet in their 1998 paper ‘The Onset Of The East Asian Financial Crisis’ http://www.nber.org/papers/w6680.pdf.
Jason Tockman explores the connections between IMF loans and conditions and deforestation in his 2001 paper ‘The IMF – Funding deforestation – How International Monetary Fund loans and policies are responsible for global forest loss’ http://wrm.org.uy/oldsite/actors/IMF/Jason.doc
For an impression of the dramatic fluctuation in the price of commodities that can accompany financial crisis see this link to the changing price of palm oil http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=palm-oil&months=300.
Multinationals, paper tigers and greasy palms
The Friends of the Earth report Paper tigers hidden dragons can be found here https://www.foe.co.uk/sites/default/files/downloads/paper_tiger_hidden_dragons.pdf.
The Greasy palms report published by the same organization can be found here https://www.foe.co.uk/sites/default/files/downloads/greasy_palms_impacts.pdf.
We also produced a more focused expose on the threats posed to the Orang Utan by the expansion of palm oil. We called it the Oil for ape scandal. https://www.foe.co.uk/sites/default/files/downloads/oil_for_ape_summary.pdf