Chapter 12. Last Frontiers: The Congo Basin

This excellent paper, African rainforests: past, present and future, from Jadvinda Malhi et al presents an overview of the African rainforests, including the history of human influence.

WWF provides a helpful summary of the Congo Basin forests and people here

Congo genocide

The BBC provides a summary of the brutal regime operating in the Congo Free State during the early 20th century

This account of atrocities, and which includes testimony from the Rev William Sheppard, was published in the New York Times on January 5th 1900

Congo Basin rainforest

For an overview of forest loss in the Congo Basin see Ernst Celine et al ‘National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005’

For background on the ‘The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa’ see this paper from Rudel

Assaults on the last frontiers

WRI analysis (Harris et al. 2017) into deforestation hotspots, ‘Using spatial statistics to identify emerging hot spots of forest loss’ including in the DRC, can be found here

On the estimate of new roads to be built up to 2050, see Laurance et al.’s 2014 paper ‘A global strategy for road building’