Chapter 10 Natural Health Service

In this chapter I write about how nature helps promote and sustain human health.

Pages 246-247. I begin this chapter on how people’s health can benefit from contact with nature with a visit to Chopwell Wood. For an evaluation on the impact of this project, see this material from the Forestry Commission:

Page 247. For more details on how sight of natural features can accelerate recovery among hospital patients, see this article by Deborah Franklin in Scientific American:

Pages 248-249. The research I cite from Jolanda Maas and her colleagues into the relationship between green-space and well-being is: Maas, J. et al. (2006). Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Vol. 60(7): 587–592. This paper can be viewed on-line at:

Page 248. For my source on the estimated cost of mental illness in England being around £105 billion per year, see this report: Cyhlarova, E. et al. (2010). Economic burden of mental illness cannot be tackled without research investment. Mental Health Foundation, London. This report may be accessed on-line via:

Page 249. The research paper looking at the benefits of wildlife in Sheffield I cite is: Richard A Fuller et al. (2007). Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters. Vol. 3 no. 4 390-394. This paper can be found on-line at:

Page 250. I describe a number of beneficial effects that can accompany exposure to nature and greenspace. For more information on this see for example: 
Kaplan, R. (1993). The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landscape and Urban Planning. Volume 26, Issues 1–4, Pages 193–201. This paper can be found on-line at:

Kuo, F.E. (2004).  Horticulture, well-being, and mental health:  From intuitions to evidence.   In Relf, D. (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXVI International Horticulture Congress:  Expanding roles for horticulture in improving human well-being and life quality.  Acta Horticulturae, 639, 27-36.

Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C.  (2001).  Environment and crime in the inner city:  Does vegetation reduce crime?   Environment & Behavior, 33(3), 343-367. This paper can be found on-line at:

Kuo, F.E. Sullivan, W.C. Coley, R.L. & Brunson, L.  (1998).  Fertile ground for community:  Inner-city neighborhood common spaces. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(6), 823-851. See this paper on-line at:

Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C.  (2001).  Environment and crime in the inner city:  Does vegetation reduce crime?   Environment & Behavior, 33(3), 343-367. This paper may be accessed on-line at:

Kuo, F.E.  (2001).  Coping with poverty:  Impacts of environment and attention in the inner city.  Environment & Behavior, 33(1), 5-34. See this paper on-line at:

Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C.  (2001).  Aggression and violence in the inner city:  Effects of environment via mental fatigue.  Environment & Behavior, Special Issue 33(4), 543-571. This paper can be found at:

Sullivan, W.C., Kuo, F.E., & DePooter, S.F. (2004).  The fruit of urban nature: Vital neighborhood spaces.  Environment & Behavior, 36(5), 678-700. See this paper on-line at:

Page 257. I write about the impact of access to nature on child health and development and mention the term ‘Nature Deficit Disorder’. For more on this idea, see Louv, R. (2010). Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder. Atlantic Books.

More specific sources on how exposure to nature can benefit child health include: Taylor, A.F., Wiley, A., Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C.  (1998).  Growing up in the inner city:  Green spaces as places to grow.  Environment & Behavior, (30)1, 3-27. See this paper on-line at:

Faber Taylor, A., Kuo, F.E. & Sullivan, W.C. (2002). Views of nature and self-discipline: Evidence from inner-city children. Journal of Environmental Psychology, Special Issue: Environment and Children, 22, 49-63.

Kuo, F.E., & Faber Taylor, A. (2004). A potential natural treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from a national study.  American Journal of Public Health,  94(9), 1580-1586.

Faber Taylor, A. & Kuo, F.E. (2006).  Is contact with nature important for healthy child development?  State of the evidence.  In Spencer, C. & Blades, M. (Eds.), Children and Their Environments: Learning, Using and Designing Spaces.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. This book chapter can be found at:

Faber Taylor, A. & Kuo, F.E. Children with attention deficits concentrate better after walk in the park. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12, 402-409. This paper can be found at:

Strife, S. and Downey, L. (2009). Childhood Development and Access to Nature: A New Direction for Environmental Inequality Research. Organization Environment. Vol. 22(1) 99-122. See this paper on-line at:

Page 259. For some background on the health benefits arising from cycling in Copenhagen, see this presentation from Niels Jensen, the City of Copenhagen planner who’s work I mention:

Pages 259-260. Further information on how the London 2012 Olympic Games Park incorporated nature into its design, see this news release for an introduction and way into further materials:

Page 261. More details on the Westfield green wall that I write about in this chapter can be found here:

Pages 261-262. A deeper explanation of how and why the Chonggyechon river restoration in Seoul can be found via this link:

Page 263. A little more background on the Wanzhuang ‘eco-city’ concept being developed by consulting firm Arup can be found at their website: and an image as to how it might look here: