Chapter 4 Waterland

Chapter 4 – Waterland

83. On the 1388 law to protect water bodies see for example George, S., William, T., Snape, J.and Rodriguez, R. (1997). The public in action: Using state citizen suit statutes to protect biodiversity. Envtl. L. 1 1997-1998 p10. You can find it on-line here http://www.eli.org/sites/default/files/docs/snape_citizen_suit_biodiversity.pdf

83. As to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive, The 2013 Changing Course report from Severn Trent Water lays out some helpful background in an informative and quite accessible style. http://www.severntrent.com/upload/pdf/ChangingCourse-WaterFrameworkDirectiveNov2013.pdf. More details on the implementation of the Directive in the UK can be found here: http://www.wfduk.org/

84. For the source of my figures on the extent of wetland ecosystems in the UK, then see UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, pg. 333. http://uknea.unep-wcmc.org/Resources/tabid/82/Default.aspx. Scroll down from the menu at the bottom of the homepage via chapter 9.

85. For more on the impacts arising from continuing rising demand for water see:  Natural England, State of the Natural Environment Report 2008 (2009) Natural England, Sheffield, and also Environment Agency (2008) Water Resources in England and Wales: current state and future pressures. Report GEHO1208BPAS-E-E. Environment Agency, Bristol.

85. For statistics relating to the quantity of water withdrawn from the environment in the UK each year see DEFRA (2013) Water Abstraction from Non-Tidal Surface Water and Groundwater in England and Wales, 2000 to 2012. DEFRA. You can find that paper here: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/312961/Water_Abstractions_release_final_20.05.14.pdf

85-86. Background on the natural history and conservation of chalk streams can be found here: http://www.wildlifetrusts.org/living-landscape/water-wetlands/chalk-stream-conservation

86-88. I write about the case of the River Beane in Hertfordshire. More details on the situation there can be derived from: http://www.hertswildlifetrust.org.uk/

88. I mention the regulatory body Ofwat. This powerful agency has a major impact on the water companies, especially through its pronoucements as to what water companies can spend. More can be found here: http://www.ofwat.gov.uk

90-93. I write about the work by the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust to restore a stretch of the River Itchen to a more natural state. More can be found here: http://www.hiwwt.org.uk/itchen-valley

93-99. I devote considerable space to the Upstream Thinking initiative taken forward by South West Water on Dartmoor and the Culm Grasslands. A visit to their website will provide much more on this: http://www.southwestwater.co.uk/index.cfm?articleid=8329 The Devon Wildlife Trust also has material on this: http://www.devonwildlifetrust.org/working-wetlands/

93-99. For more technical sources reviewing the relationships between land management and water see for example:
Bilotta, G.S., et al., (2008). Rethinking the contribution of drained and undrained grasslands to sediment-related water quality problems. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37(3), pp.906-914. This paper can be sourced from: http://www.academia.edu/1105164/Rethinking_the_contribution_of_drained_and_undrained_grasslands_to_sediment-related_water_quality_problems

Parsons, A.J., Brazier, R.E., Powell, D.M., Wainwright, J. (2006). Scale relationships in hillslope runoff and erosion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31(11), pp.1384-1393. This paper relates research from Arizona USA but is relevant to the points I make. One of the co-authors was interviewed for this part of the book. It can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/esp.1345/abstract

Brazier, R.E. (2004). Quantifying soil erosion by water in the UK; a review of monitoring and modelling approaches. Progress in Physical Geography, 28(3), pp.1-26. This paper covers some of the technical issues behind how best to assess erosion levels and can be found here: http://ppg.sagepub.com/content/28/3/340.abstract

97. Regarding the effectiveness of interventions to cut run-off from Exmoor, these two sources provide relevant details:

99-101. During August 2014 I visited the Dungonnell Water Treatment works in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. By way of further background to what I describe this excellent RSPB report gives more details: http://www.rspb.org.uk/Images/Blanket_Bog_sm_tcm9-335643.pdf

101-103. Further details on the work being done by Yorkshire Water to restore blanket bogs and to reduce sediment and colour run-off from hills can be found here: http://www.yorkshirewater.com/our-environment/biodiversity/catchment-management.aspx

102. I suggest that it would be desirable to look at payments made to moorland managers and owners so as to encourage land use more in keeping with water (and flooding) related objectives. More on those payments here: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/cap-boost-for-moorland

103-105. Across these pages I describe the efforts of Wessex Water to protect the waters of Poole Harbour. More on that work can be found here: http://www.wessexwater.co.uk/environment/threecol.aspx?id=7525&linkidentifier=id&itemid=7525 and more details in Punchard, N., (2012). Frome & Piddle Catchment Initiative: Framework for engagement. Wessex Water. http://www.wessexwater.co.uk/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8970 

105. I mention a review that I was personally involved with that sought to compare engineered with catchment-based approaches. Indepen, (2014). Discussion paper on the potential for catchment services in England, for Wessex Water, Severn Trent Water and South West Water. Indepen, London. You can find this paper on-line at: http://www.indepen.uk.com/docs/catchment-services-report_july2014.pdf