Chapter 1. A clue in the name

P. W. Richards, The Tropical Rain Forest (London: Cambridge University Press, 1952).

German scholar, Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper (1856–1901) who first used the term tropische Regenwald in his founding work on ecology, Planzengeographie auf physiologischer Grundlage, published in 1898. This was translated into English in 1903 as Plantgeography upon a physiological basis.

Alexander Von Humbolt’s travels in the New World are wonderfully documented in Andrea Wulf’s wonderful 2015 book The Invention of Nature, Knopf Publishing Group.

Why the rainforest is like a green ocean
This 2012 article, ‘Salt Seeds Clouds in the Amazon Rainforest’, by Paul Preuss presents a helpful summary on how cloud seeding material is produced by the rainforest itself. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2012/09/10/amazon-aerosols/.

Research into the role of pollen as a cloud seeding material is explored in this 2015 piece by Nicole Moore, ‘Pollen and clouds: April flowers bring May showers’

The proportion of water evaporated from vegetation compared with other terrestrial sources can be found in this 2013 paper, ‘Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration’, by Jasechko et al. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552893. 

Antonio Nobre’s excellent 2014 paper The Future Climate of the Amazon  explains why forests might be dubbed ‘green oceans’ http://www.ccst.inpe.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/The_Future_Climate_of_Amazonia_Report.pdf

How the rainforests pump water around the planet
Makarieva and Gorshkov’s biotic pump theory is set out in this 2007 paper ‘Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture as driver of the hydrological cycle on land’ https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/11/1013/2007/

The extent to which the biotic pump is driving large-scale atmospheric circulation see Makarieva et al. and this 2013 paper ‘Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics’ https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/1039/2013/

Gorshkov et al.’s 2000 book Biotic Regulation of the Environment: Key Issues of Global Change (Springer Verlag) explores how biotic systems maintain conditions for life on Earth.

Peter Bunyard published the findings of his research into the functioning of the biotic pump mechanism with co-authors in this 2017 paper, ‘Condensation and partial pressure change as a major cause of airflow:experimental evidence:' https://doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v84n202.61253

Evidence of increased incidence of drought in the Amazon basin can be found in Marengo et al.’s 2011 paper ‘The drought of 2010 in the context of historical droughts in the Amazon region’ http://www.inpe.br/noticias/arquivos/pdf/2011GL047436.pdf

On the scale of degradation across the Amazon and how this relates to the notion of a ‘green ocean’ and possible future effects on the hydrological cycle see Antonio Nobre’s excellent 2014 paper The Future Climate of the Amazon  http://www.ccst.inpe.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/The_Future_Climate_of_Amazonia_Report.pdf

Sky rivers and the long-distance movement of water
An early reference to the idea of sky rivers was made in Reginald E. New’s 1992 paper ‘Tropospheric rivers? – A pilot study’ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/92GL02916/full

Spraklen et al. write in this 2012 paper about ‘Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests’ https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11390#auth-1.

Deborah Lawrence and Karen Vandecar’s very important 2015 paper on long distance water movements and their relationships with tropical deforestation, ‘Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture’, can be found at https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate2430.